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API for Beit-Hatfutsot Databases

Genealogical Collection

Search for a Person

Search for a Person
GET/v1/person{?place,first_name,maiden_name,last_name,birth_place,marriage_place,death_place,birth_year,marriage_year,death_year,sex,tree_number}

This view initiates persons search in Beit HaTfutsot genealogical data.

Example URI

GET /v1/person?place=&first_name=Albert&maiden_name=&last_name=Einstein&birth_place=&marriage_place=&death_place=&birth_year=&marriage_year=&death_year=&sex=&tree_number=
URI Parameters
HideShow
place
string (optional) 

A place that the person been born, married or died in

first_name
string (optional) Example: Albert

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

maiden_name
string (optional) 

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

last_name
string (optional) Example: Einstein

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

birth_place
string (optional) 

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

marriage_place
string (optional) 

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

death_place
string (optional) 

Supports two suffixes - ;prefix to look for names begining with the given string and ;phonetic to use phonetic matching.

birth_year
number (optional) 

Supports an optional fudge factor suffix, i.e. to search for a person born between 1905 to 1909 use “1907:2”

marriage_year
number (optional) 

Supports an optional fudge factor suffix.

death_year
number (optional) 

Supports an optional fudge factor suffix.

tree_number
number (optional) 

A valid tree number, like 7806

sex
String (optional) 

Choices: 'f' 'm'

Response  200
HideShow
Headers
Content-Type: application/json
Body
{
    "items": [
        {
            "Slug": {
                "En": "person_1196;0.I686"
            },
            "birth_place": "Ulm a.D., Germany",
            "birth_year": 1879,
            "death_place": "Princeton, U.S.A.",
            "death_year": 1955,
            "deceased": true,
            "id": "I686",
            "name": [
                "Albert",
                "Einstein"
            ],
            "parents": [
                {
                    "deceased": true,
                    "id": "I684",
                    "name": [
                        "Hermann",
                        "Einstein"
                    ],
                    "parents": [
                        {
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I682",
                            "name": [
                                "Abraham Ruppert",
                                "Einstein"
                            ],
                            "sex": "M"
                        },
                        {
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I683",
                            "name": [
                                "Helena",
                                "Moos"
                            ],
                            "sex": "F"
                        }
                    ],
                    "partners": [
                        {
                            "children": [],
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I685",
                            "name": [
                                "Pauline",
                                "Koch"
                            ],
                            "sex": "F"
                        }
                    ],
                    "sex": "M"
                },
                {
                    "deceased": true,
                    "id": "I685",
                    "name": [
                        "Pauline",
                        "Koch"
                    ],
                    "parents": [],
                    "partners": [
                        {
                            "children": [],
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I684",
                            "name": [
                                "Hermann",
                                "Einstein"
                            ],
                            "sex": "M"
                        }
                    ],
                    "sex": "F"
                }
            ],
            "partners": [
                {
                    "children": [
                        {
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I835",
                            "name": [
                                "Lieserl",
                                "Maric"
                            ],
                            "partners": [],
                            "sex": "F"
                        },
                        {
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I836",
                            "name": [
                                "Hans Albert",
                                "Einstein"
                            ],
                            "partners": [
                                {
                                    "children": [
                                        {
                                            "deceased": false,
                                            "id": "I839",
                                            "name": [
                                                "Bernhard Caesar",
                                                "Einstein"
                                            ],
                                            "sex": "M"
                                        },
                                        {
                                            "deceased": true,
                                            "id": "I1287",
                                            "name": [
                                                "Klaus",
                                                "Einstein"
                                            ],
                                            "sex": "M"
                                        },
                                        {
                                            "deceased": false,
                                            "id": "I1288",
                                            "name": [
                                                "Evelyn",
                                                "Einstein"
                                            ],
                                            "sex": "F"
                                        }
                                    ],
                                    "deceased": true,
                                    "id": "I838",
                                    "name": [
                                        "Frieda",
                                        "Knecht"
                                    ],
                                    "sex": "F"
                                },
                                {
                                    "children": [],
                                    "deceased": true,
                                    "id": "I1289",
                                    "name": [
                                        "Elizabeth",
                                        "Roboz"
                                    ],
                                    "sex": "F"
                                }
                            ],
                            "sex": "M"
                        },
                        {
                            "deceased": true,
                            "id": "I837",
                            "name": [
                                "Eduard",
                                "Einstein"
                            ],
                            "partners": [],
                            "sex": "M"
                        }
                    ],
                    "deceased": true,
                    "id": "I687",
                    "name": [
                        "Mileva",
                        "Maric"
                    ],
                    "sex": "F"
                },
                {
                    "children": [],
                    "deceased": true,
                    "id": "I688",
                    "name": [
                        "Elsa",
                        "Einstein-Loewenthal"
                    ],
                    "sex": "F"
                }
            ],
            "sex": "M",
            "siblings": [
                {
                    "deceased": true,
                    "id": "I840",
                    "name": [
                        "Maja",
                        "Einstein"
                    ],
                    "sex": "F"
                }
            ],
            "tree_num": 1196,
            "tree_version": 0
        },
        ...
    ],
    "total": 16
}

Database Items

get items

get items
GET/v1/item/{slugs}

This view returns a list of jsons representing one or more item(s).

Example URI

GET /v1/item/place_paris
URI Parameters
HideShow
slugs
string (required) Example: place_paris

The slugs argument is in the form of “collection_slug”, as in “personality_einstein-albert” and could contain multiple slugs split by commas.

Response  200
HideShow
Headers
Content-Type: application/json
Body
[
  {
    "LocationInMuseum": null,
    "Pictures": [
      {
        "PictureId": "00E201C7-BCD4-404A-B551-0D5B1DE8DEE3",
        "IsPreview": "0"
      },
      {
        "PictureId": "5A8D1CC0-3D01-4AB0-B515-4B27873703D8",
        "IsPreview": "1"
      },
      {
        "PictureId": "212BE375-83E7-440A-9C5A-AAE09BEB89B1",
        "IsPreview": "0"
      },
      {
        "PictureId": "29202878-0C3C-4DE6-BE00-B2A708693B2D",
        "IsPreview": "0"
      },
      {
        "PictureId": "5687F54F-66DC-4BCB-A6CD-FB9AEAD4D00A",
        "IsPreview": "0"
      }
    ],
    "PictureUnitsIds": "19652,1935,38107,4682,23069,",
    "related": [
      "image_ose-summer-camp-for-children-vilkoviskis-lithuania-1929-1930",
      "familyname_berlin",
      "luminary_moses-ben-nahman",
      "place_krefeld",
      "image_jewish-settlers-working-in-the-fields-of-gross-gaglow-germany-1930s",
      "familyname_weil"
    ],
    "UpdateDate": "2016-01-07 09:30:00",
    "OldUnitId": "HB001520.HTM-EB001338.HTM",
    "id": 189648,
    "UpdateUser": "simona",
    "PrevPictureFileNames": "01934000.JPG,00143500.JPG,03014600.JPG,00418900.JPG,02294100.JPG,",
    "PrevPicturePaths": "Photos\\00001024.scn\\01934000.JPG,Photos\\00000033.scn\\00143500.JPG,Photos\\00000639.scn\\03014600.JPG,Photos\\00000285.scn\\00418900.JPG,Photos\\00000807.scn\\02294100.JPG,",
    "PlaceTypeCode": 1,
    "TS": "\u0000\u0000\u0000\u0000\u0000LZo",
    "PlaceTypeDesc": {
      "En": "City",
      "He": "עיר"
    },
    "UnitType": 5,
    "UnitTypeDesc": "Place",
    "EditorRemarks": "hasavot from Places ",
    "thumbnail": {
      "path": "Photos/00000033.scn/00143500.JPG",
      "data": "..."
    },
    "RightsDesc": "Full",
    "Bibiliography": {
      "En": null,
      "He": "אנציקלופדיה יודאיקה \nמכון קונגרס יהודי עולמי"
    },
    "UnitText1": {
      "En": "PARIS \n\nCapital of France \n\nIn 582, the date of the first documentary evidence of the presence of Jews in Paris, there was already a community with a synagogue. In 614 or 615, the sixth council of Paris decided that Jews who held public office, and their families, must convert to Christianity. From the 12th century on there was a Jewish quarter. According to one of the sources of Joseph ha- Kohen's Emek ha-Bakha, Paris Jews owned about half the land in Paris and the vicinity. They employed many Christian servants and the objects they took in pledge included even church vessels.\n\nFar more portentous was the blood libel which arose against the Jews of Blois in 1171. In 1182, Jews were expelled. The crown confiscated the houses of the Jews as well as the synagogue and the king gave 24 of them to the drapers of Paris and 18 to the furriers. When the Jews were permitted to return to the kingdom of France in 1198 they settled in Paris, in and around the present rue Ferdinand Duval, which became the Jewish quarter once again in the modern era.\n\nThe famous disputation on the Talmud was held in Paris in 1240. The Jewish delegation was led by Jehiel b. Joseph of Paris. After the condemnation of the Talmud, 24 cart-loads of Jewish books were burned in public in the Place de Greve, now the Place de l'Hotel de Ville. A Jewish moneylender called Jonathan was accused of desecrating the host in 1290. It is said that this was the main cause of the expulsion of 1306.\n\nTax rolls of the Jews of Paris of 1292 and 1296 give a good picture of their economic and social status. One striking fact is that a great many of them originated from the provinces. In spite of the prohibition on the settlement of Jews expelled from England, a number of recent arrivals from that country are listed. As in many other places, the profession of physician figures most prominently among the professions noted. The majority of the rest of the Jews engaged in moneylending and commerce. During the same period the composition of the Jewish community, which numbered at least 100 heads of families, changed to a large extent through migration and the number also declined to a marked degree. One of the most illustrious Jewish scholars of medieval France, Judah b. Isaac, known as Sir Leon of Paris, headed the yeshiva of Paris in the early years of the 13th century. He was succeeded by Jehiel b. Joseph, the Jewish leader at the 1240 disputation. After the wholesale destruction of\nJewish books on this occasion until the expulsion of 1306, the yeshivah of Paris produced no more scholars of note.\n\nIn 1315, a small number of Jews returned and were expelled again in 1322. The new community was formed in Paris in 1359. Although the Jews were under the protection of the provost of Paris, this was to no avail against the murderous attacks and looting in 1380 and 1382 perpetrated by a populace in revolt against the tax burden. King Charles VI relieved the Jews of responsibility for the valuable pledges which had been stolen from them on this occasion and granted them other financial concessions, but the community was unable to recover. In 1394, the community was struck by the Denis de Machaut affair. Machaut, a Jewish convert to Christianity, had disappeared and the Jews were accused of having murdered him or, at the very least, of having imprisoned him until he agreed to return to Judaism. Seven Jewish notables were condemned to death, but their sentence was commuted to a heavy fine allied to imprisonment until Machaut reappeared. This affair was a prelude to the \"definitive\" expulsion of the Jews from France in 1394.\n\nFrom the beginning of the 18th century the Jews of Metz applied to the authorities for permission to enter Paris on their business pursuits; gradually the periods of their stay in the capital increased and were prolonged. At the same time, the city saw the arrival of Jews from Bordeaux (the \"Portuguese\") and from Avignon. From 1721 to 1772 a police inspector was given special charge over the Jews.\nAfter the discontinuation of the office, the trustee of the Jews from 1777 was Jacob Rodrigues Pereire, a Jew from Bordeaux, who had charge over a group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, while the German Jews (from Metz, Alsace, and Loraine) were led by Moses Eliezer Liefman Calmer, and those from Avignon by Israel Salom. The German Jews lived in the poor quarters of Saint-Martin and Saint-Denis, and those from Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Avignon inhabited the more luxurious quarters of Saint Germaine and Saint André.\n\nLarge numbers of the Jews eked out a miserable living in peddling. The more well-to-do were moneylenders, military purveyors and traders in jewels. There were also some craftsmen among them. Inns preparing kosher food existed from 1721; these also served as prayer rooms. The first publicly acknowledged synagogue was opened in rue de Brisemiche in 1788. The number of Jews of Paris just before the revolution was probably no greater than 500. On Aug. 26, 1789 they presented the constituent assembly with a petition asking for the rights of citizens. Full citizenship rights were granted to the Spanish, Portuguese, and Avignon Jews on Jan. 28, 1790.\n\nAfter the freedom of movement brought about by emancipation, a large influx of Jews arrived in Paris, numbering 2,908 in 1809. When the Jewish population of Paris had reached between 6,000 and 7,000 persons, the Consistory began to build the first great synagogue. The Consistory established its first primary school in 1819.\n\nThe 30,000 or so Jews who lived in Paris in 1869 constituted about 40% of the Jewish population of France. The great majority originated from Metz, Alsace, Lorraine, and Germany, and there were already a few hundreds from Poland. Apart from a very few wealthy capitalists, the great majority of the Jews belonged to the middle economic level. The liberal professions also attracted numerous Jews; the community included an increasing number of professors, lawyers, and physicians. After 1881 the Jewish population increased with the influx of refugees from Poland, Russia, and the Slav provinces of Austria and Romania. At the same time, there was a marked increase in the anti-Semitic movement. The Dreyfus affair, from 1894, split the intellectuals of Paris into \"Dreyfusards\" and \"anti-Dreyfusards\" who frequently clashed on the streets, especially in the Latin Quarter. With the law separating church and state in 1905, the Jewish consistories lost their official status, becoming no more than private religious associations. The growing numbers of Jewish immigrants to Paris resented the heavy hand of a Consistory, which was largely under the control of Jews from Alsace and Lorraine, now a minority group. These immigrants formed the greater part of the 13,000 \"foreign\" Jews who enlisted in World War 1. Especially after 1918, Jews began to arrive from north Africa, Turkey, and the Balkans, and in greatly increased numbers from eastern Europe. Thus in 1939 there were around 150,000 Jews in Paris (over half the total in France). The Jews lived all over the city but there were large concentrations of them in the north and east. More than 150 landmanschaften composed of immigrants from eastern Europe and many charitable societies united large numbers of Jews, while at this period the Paris Consistory (which retained the name with its changed function) had no more than 6,000 members.\n\nOnly one of the 19th-century Jewish primary schools was still in existence in 1939, but a few years earlier the system of Jewish education which was strictly private in nature acquired a secondary school and a properly supervised religious education, for which the Consistory was responsible. Many great Jewish scholars were born and lived in Paris in the modern period. They included the Nobel Prize winners Rene Cassin and A. Lwoff. On June 14, 1940, the Wehrmacht entered Paris, which was proclaimed an open city. Most Parisians left, including the Jews. However, the population returned in the following weeks. A sizable number of well-known Jews fled to England and the USA. (Andre Maurois), while some, e.g. Rene Cassin and Gaston Palewski, joined General de Gaulle's free French movement in London. Parisian Jews were active from the very beginning in resistance movements. The march to the etoile on Nov. 11, 1940, of high school and university students, the first major public manifestation of resistance, included among its organizers Francis Cohen, Suzanne Dijan, and Bernard Kirschen.\n\nThe first roundups of Parisian Jews of foreign nationality took place in 1941; about 5,000 \"foreign\" Jews were deported on May 14, about 8,000 \"foreigners\" in August, and about 100 \"intellectuals\" on December 13. On July 16, 1942, 12,884 Jews were rounded up in Paris (including about 4,000 children). The Parisian Jews represented over half the 85,000 Jews deported from France to extermination camps in the east. During the night of Oct. 2-3, 1941, seven Parisian synagogues were attacked.\n\nSeveral scores of Jews fell in the Paris insurrection in August, 1944. Many streets in Paris and the outlying suburbs bear the names of Jewish heroes and martyrs of the Holocaust period and the memorial to the unknown Jewish martyr, a part of the Centre de documentation juive contemporaire, was erected in in 1956 in the heart of Paris.\n\nBetween 1955 and 1965, the Jewish community experienced a demographic transformation with the arrival of more than 300,000 Sephardi Jews from North Africa. These Jewish immigrants came primarily from Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt. At the time, Morocco and Tunisia were French protectorates unlike Algeria which was directly governed by France. Since their arrival, the Sephardi Jews of North Africa have remained the majority (60%) of French Jewry. \n\nIn 1968 Paris and its suburbs contained about 60% of the Jewish population of France. In 1968 it was estimated at between 300,000 and 350,000 (about 5% of the total population). In 1950, two-thirds of the Jews were concentrated in about a dozen of the poorer or commercial districts in the east of the city. The social and economic advancement of the second generation of east European immigrants, the influx of north Africans, and the gradual implementation of the urban renewal program caused a considerable change in the once Jewish districts and the dispersal of the Jews throughout other districts of Paris.\n\nBetween 1957 and 1966 the number of Jewish communities in the Paris region rose from 44 to 148. The Paris Consistory, traditionally presided over by a member of the Rothschild family, officially provides for all religious needs. Approximately 20 synagogues and meeting places for prayer observing Ashkenazi or Sephardi rites are affiliated with the Consistory, which also provides for the religious needs of new communities in the suburbs. This responsibility is shared by traditional orthodox elements, who, together with the reform and other independent groups, maintain another 30 or so synagogues. The orientation and information office of the Fonds social juif unifie had advised or assisted over 100,000 refugees from north Africa. It works in close cooperation with government services and social welfare and educational institutions of the community. Paris was one of the very few cities in the diaspora with a full-fledged Israel-type school, conducted by Israeli teachers according to an Israeli curriculum. \n\nThe Six-Day War (1967), which drew thousands of Jews into debates and\nPro-Israel demonstrations, was an opportunity for many of them to reassess their personal attitude toward the Jewish people. During the \"students' revolution\" of 1968 in nearby Nanterre and in the Sorbonne, young Jews played an outstanding role in the leadership of left-wing activists and often identified with Arab anti-Israel propaganda extolling the Palestinian organizations. Eventually, however, when the \"revolutionary\" wave subsided, it appeared that the bulk of Jewish students in Paris, including many supporters of various new left groups, remained loyal to Israel and strongly opposed Arab terrorism.\n\nAs of 2015, France was home to the third largest Jewish population in the world. It was also the largest in all of Europe. More than half the Jews in France live in the Paris metropolitan area. According to the World Jewish Congress, an estimated 350,000 Jews live in the city of Paris and its many districts. By 2014, Paris had become the largest Jewish city outside of Israel and the United States. Comprising 6% of the city’s total population (2.2 million), the Jews of Paris are a sizeable minority. \n\nThere are more than twenty organizations dedicated to serving the Jewish community of Paris. Several offer social services while others combat anti-Semitism. There are those like the Paris Consistory which financially supports many of the city's congregations. One of the largest organizations is the Alliance Israélite Universelle which focuses on self-defense, human rights and Jewish education. The FSJU or Unified Social Jewish Fund assists in the absorption of new immigrants. Other major organizations include the ECJC (European Council of Jewish Communities), EAJCC (European Association of Jewish Communities), ACIP (Association Consitoriale Israelité), CRIF (Representative Council of Jewish Institutions), and the UEJF (Jewish Students Union of France). \n\nBeing the third largest Jewish city behind New York and Los Angeles, Paris is home to numerous synagogues. By 2013, there were more than eighty three individual congregations. While the majority of these are orthodox, many conservative and liberal congregations can be found across Paris. During the 1980s, the city received an influx of orthodox Jews, primarily as a result of the Lubavitch movement which has since been very active in Paris and throughout France. \n\nApproximately 4% of school-age children in France are enrolled in Jewish day schools. In Paris, there are over thirty private Jewish schools. These include those associated with both the orthodox and liberal movements. Chabad Lubavitch has established many educational programs of its own. The Jewish schools in Paris range from the pre-school to High School level. There are additionally a number of Hebrew schools which enroll students of all ages.  \n\nAmong countless cultural institutions are museums and memorials which preserve the city's Jewish history. Some celebrate the works of Jewish artists while others commemorate the Holocaust and remember its victims. The Museum of Jewish art displays sketches by Mane-Katz, the paintings of Alphonse Levy and the lithographs of Chagall. At the Center of Contemporary Jewish Documentation (CDJC), stands the Memorial de la Shoah. Here, visitors can view the center's many Holocaust memorials including the Memorial of the Unknown Jewish Martyrs, the Wall of Names, and the Wall of the Righteous Among the Nations. Located behind the Notre Dame is the Memorial of Deportation, a memorial to the 200,000 Jews who were deported from Vichy France to the Nazi concentration camps. On the wall of a primary school on rue Buffault is a plaque commemorating the 12,000 Parisian Jewish children who died in Auschwitz following their deportation from France between 1942 and 1944.\n\nFor decades, Paris has been the center of the intellectual and cultural life of French Jewry. The city offers a number of institutions dedicated to Jewish history and culture. Located at the Alliance Israélite Universalle is the largest Jewish library in all of Europe. At the Bibliothèque Medem is the Paris Library of Yiddish. The Mercaz Rashi is home to the University Center for Jewish Studies, a well known destination for Jewish education. One of the most routinely visited cultural centers in Paris is the Chabad House. As of 2014, it was the largest in the world. The Chabad House caters to thousands of Jewish students from Paris and elsewhere every year.\n\nLocated in the city of Paris are certain districts, many of them historic, which are well known for their significant Jewish populations. One in particular is Le Marais “The Marsh”, which had long been an aristocratic district of Paris until much of the city’s nobility began to move. By the end of the 19th century, the district had become an active commercial area. It was at this time that thousands of Ashkenazi Jews fleeing persecution in Eastern Europe began to settle Le Marais, bringing their specialization in clothing with them. Arriving from Romania, Austria, Hungary and Russia, they developed a new community alongside an already established community of Parisian Jews. As Jewish immigration continued into the mid 20th century, this Jewish quarter in the fourth arrondissement of Paris became known as the “Pletzl”, a Yiddish term meaning “little place”. Despite having been targeted by the Nazis during World War II, the area has continued to be a major center of the Paris Jewish community. Since the 1990s, the area has grown. Along the Rue des Rosiers are a number of Jewish restaurants, bookstores, kosher food outlets and synagogues. Another notable area with a sizeable Jewish community is in the city’s 9th district. Known as the Faubourg-Montmarte, it is home to several synagogues, kosher restaurants as well as many offices to a number of Jewish organizations. \n\nWith centuries-old Jewish neighborhoods, Paris has its share of important Jewish landmarks. Established in 1874 is the Rothschild Synagogue and while it may not be ancient, its main attraction is its rabbis who are well known for being donned in Napoleonic era apparel. The synagogue on Rue Buffault opened in 1877 and was the first synagogue in Paris to adopt the Spanish/Portuguese rite. Next to the synagogue is a memorial dedicated to the 12,000 children who perished in the Holocaust. The Copernic synagogue is the city’s largest non-orthodox congregation. In 1980 it was the target of an anti-Semitic bombing which led to the death of four people during the celebration of Simchat Torah, the first attack against the Jewish people in France since World War II. In the 1970s, the remains of what many believed to have been a Yeshiva were found under the Rouen Law Courts. Just an hour outside of Paris, this site is presumed to be from the 12th century when Jews comprised nearly 20% of the total population. \n\nServing many of the medical needs of the Jewish community of Paris are organizations such as the OSE and CASIP. While the Rothschild hospital provides general medical care, the OSE or Society for the Health of the Jewish Population, offers several health centers around the city. CASIP focuses on providing the community social services include children and elderly homes. \n\nBeing a community of nearly 400,000 people, the Jews of Paris enjoy a diversity of media outlets centered on Jewish culture. Broadcasted every week are Jewish television programs which include news and a variety of entertainment. On radio are several stations such as Shalom Paris which airs Jewish music, news and programming. Circulating throughout Paris are two weekly Jewish papers and a number of monthly journals. One of the city’s major newspapers is the Actualité Juive. There are also online journals such as the Israel Infos and Tribute Juive. ",
      "He": "פריס\n\nבירת צרפת.\n\nעדות ראשונה על קיום יהודים בפריס נשתמרה מסוף המאה ה-6 וכבר אז הייתה במקום קהילה יהודית ולה בית-כנסת משלה. הקהילה קיימה יחסי שכנות תקינים עם שאר תושבי העיר.\n\nהאיסור על קבלת יהודים למשרה ציבורית, שנקבע בקונסיל השישי בפריס (614 או 615), מעיד על מעמדם הרם בחברה.\n\nמתחילת המאה ה-12 היה בעיר רובע מיוחד ליהודים, ולדברי אחד המקורות של יוסף הכהן, \"ספר הבכא\", היו בבעלות יהודית כמחצית האדמות בפריס וסביבתה. היו ליהודים הרבה עבדים ושפחות, ובין הפקדונות שהיו לוקחים להבטחת ההלוואות היו גם כלי פולחן נוצריים.\n\nעלילת-דם על יהודי בלואה (1171) עוררה סערת רוחות גם בפריס, והייתה בין הגורמים לגירושם מהעיר בשנת 1182. את בתי היהודים חילק המלך בין סוחרי האריגים והפרוות בעיר.\n\nכעבור 16 שנה הותר ליהודים לחזור לפריס. הפעם התיישבו באיזור-מגורים, ששימש אותם גם בעת החדשה.\n\nבימיו של לואי ה-9 נערך בפריס הוויכוח המפורסם על התלמוד (1240), עם ר' יחיאל בן יוסף בראש המשלחת היהודית והמומר ניקולאס דונין בצד שכנגד. בתום הוויכוח הועלו על האש באחת מכיכרות העיר (כיום \"פלאס דה ל'הוטל דה ויל) ספרי קודש שהובאו למקום ב-24 עגלות סוסים.\n\nב- 1290 הואשם יהודי בחילול לחם הקודש; ההסתה שנתלוותה לכך הייתה הסיבה העיקרית לגירוש של 1306. מרשימות המסים של אותן השנים מתברר, שרבים מיהודי פריס הגיעו למקום מערי-שדה, ואחרי 1290 קלטה הקהילה, למרות האיסור הרשמי, גם מגורשים מאנגליה. בין בעלי המקצועות בולטים היו רופאים יהודים, אבל הרוב המכריע עסק בהלוואת כספים ובמסחר. הקהילה, שמנתה אז כמאה בתי-אב, נתרוששה עד מהרה ורבים עזבו את העיר עוד לפני הגירוש. ישיבת פריס ירדה מגדולתה אחרי שריפת התלמוד וגירוש 1306.\n\nב-1315 חזרו מעטים וגורשו שוב ב-1322. היישוב התחדש בשנת 1359 ואף שזכה בחסות השלטונות הצבאיים בעיר לא ניצל מידי ההמון בהתמרדות נגד נטל המיסים בשנים 1380, 1382. המלך שארל ה-6 אמנם פטר את היהודים מאחריות לפקדונות היקרים שנגזלו מהם והעניק להם הקלות אחרות, אבל הקהילה שוב לא התאוששה. מכה נוספת הונחתה עליה בפרשת דניס דה מאשו, מומר שנעלם והיהודים הואשמו ברציחתו; על שבעה מראשי העדה נגזר דין- מוות, והוחלף בקנס כבד ובמאסר. הדבר אירע על סף הגירוש הכללי מצרפת ב-1394. בין גדולי הקהילה עד גירוש \"סופי\" זה היו חכמי פריס מן המאה ה-12, ר' שלמה בן מאיר (הרשב\"ם) ור' יעקב בן מאיר (רבינו תם); ראש הישיבה ר' מתתיהו גאון ובנו הפוסק יחיאל, בעלי התוספות י' יום-טוב ור' חיים בן חננאל הכהן, הפוסק י' אליהו בן יהודה ור' יעקב בן שמעון. במאה ה-13 - ראש הישיבה ר' יהודה בן יצחק ויורשו ר' יחיאל בן יוסף, ובמאה ה-14 - ראש הישיבה הרב הראשי של צרפת מתתיהו בן יוסף.\n\nבתחילת המאה ה-18 הותר ליהודים ממץ שבאלזאס לבקר בפריס לרגל עסקים, ובמרוצת הזמן הוארכה יותר ויותר תקופת שהותם בעיר. לצדם הגיעו לעיר יהודים מבורדו (ה\"פורטוגיזים\") ומאוויניון. במשטרת פריס נתמנה מפקח מיוחד לעניני יהודים. המשרה בוטלה, ומ-1777 שימשו יהודים כממונים: יעקב רודריגז פריירא - על יוצאי ספרד ופורטוגאל, משה אליעזר ליפמן קאלמר - על יוצאי גרמניה וישראל שלום - על יהודי אוויניון. ה\"גרמנים\" ישבו בשכונות הדלות סנט-מארטן וסנט-דני, האחרים באמידות מסוג סנט-ג'רמן וסנט-אנדריי. יהודים רבים עסקו ברוכלות ובמכירת בגדים משומשים. המבוססים יותר היו מלווים בריבית, ספקי סוסים לצבא וסוחרי תכשיטים. היו גם עובדי חריתה וריקמה.\n\nאכסניות לאוכל כשר נפתחו ב-1721 ושימשו גם כ\"מניינים\" חשאיים. בית-כנסת ראשון לא נפתח אלא ב- 1788. ערב המהפיכה לא ישבו בפריס יותר מ-500 יהודים. ב-26 באוגוסט 1789 הגישו עצומה לאסיפה המכוננת וביקשו זכויות-אזרח; ב-28 בינואר 1790 הוענקו זכויות אלה ל\"יהודים הצרפתיים\" יוצאי ספרד, פורטוגאל ואוויניון.\n\nב-1809 כבר מנה היישוב היהודי בפריס יותר מ-2,900 איש וכעבור עשר שנים 6,000 - 7,000. אז ניגשה הקונסיסטוריה לבניית בית-הכנסת הגדול, והקימה את בית-ספר היסודי הראשון. ב-1859 הועתק ממץ בית-המדרש לרבנים ובשנה שלאחריה נוסדה בפריס חברת \"כל ישראל חברים\".\n\nב-1869 נרשמו בפריס כ-30,000 תושבים יהודיים (כ-%40 מכלל היישוב היהודי בצרפת), רובם יוצאי אלזאס, לוריין וגרמניה, וכמה מאות יוצאי פולין. מעטים מאד היו עתירי-הון; הרוב המכריע השתייך למעמד הבינוני הנמוך. בקרב הנוער היהודי טיפחו את אהבת העבודה, וחלה גם עלייה מתמדת במספר היהודים בעלי מקצועות חופשיים - מורים באקדמיה, עורכי-דין ורופאים.\n\nבתחילת שנות ה-80 של המאה ה- 19 הגיעו לפריס פליטים מרוסיה ומן האזורים הסלאביים של אוסטריה ורומניה, וחל גידול ניכר בקרב עובדי-כפיים יהודים בעיר. עם זאת גברה גם ההסתה האנטישמית, שהגיעה לשיאה בפרשת דרייפוס (משנת 1894).\n\nעם הפרדת הדת מן המדינה ב-1905 נעשתה הקונסיסטוריה היהודית בפריס ארגון דתי פרטי; ועדיין הייתה בשליטת יוצאי אלזאס ולוריין, מיעוט בין יהודי פריס, והמוני המהגרים החדשים הסתייגו ממנה. מבין המהגרים החדשים יצאו 13,000 \"היהודים הזרים\" ששירתו בשורות הצבא הצרפתי במלחמת-העולם הראשונה (1914 - 1918).\n\nאחרי המלחמה התחילה הגירה יהודית לפריס מצפון-אפריקה, מטורקיה, מארצות הבלקן ובעיקר ממזרח-אירופה.\n\nבשנת 1939 ישבו בפריס 150,000 יהודים, רובם היו דוברי יידיש, והיו יותר ממחצית היישוב היהודי בצרפת כולה. ריכוזים יהודיים היו באזורים הצפוניים והמזרחיים של העיר. היהודים היו מאורגנים ביותר מ-150 \"לאנדסמאנשאפט\" (ארגונים של יוצאי קהילות שונות) ובאגודות מאגודות שונות, ואילו הקונסיסטוריה של פריס מנתה רק 6,000 חברים רשומים. מבתי-הספר היהודיים הישנים שרד רק אחד, אבל לצידו התקיימה רשת חינוך דתי בבתי-הכנסת וב\"מניינים\", בית-ספר תיכון פרטי ואפילו כמה תיכונים ממשלתיים. לעיתונות היהודית בצרפתית נוספה עתונות גם ביידיש.\n\nבין האישים המובילים בקהילת יהודי פריס היו חתני פרס נובל רנה קאסן וא' לבוב. באמנות הציור והפיסול תפסו יהודים מקום בולט, במיוחד באסכולה הפריסאית בין שתי מלחמות- העולם.\n\nערב מלחמת העולם השנייה (ספטמבר 1939) ישבו בפריס למעלה מ- 150,000 יהודים.\n\n\nתקופת השואה\n\nב-14 ביוני 1940 נכנס הצבא הגרמני לפריס. רבים מתושבי העיר נמלטו, אבל חזרו תוך שבועות אחדים. בין היהודים היו רבים שהעדיפו להשאר בצרפת הבלתי-כבושה, היו שהרחיקו לארצות-הברית (דוגמת הסופר אנדריי מורואה) והיו (למשל, רנה קאסן וגאסטון פאלבסקי) שהצטרפו לתנועת צרפת החופשית של דה גול בלונדון.\n\nיהודי פאריס היו מראשוני הפעילים בתנועות המחתרת; פראנסיס כהן, סוזאן דג'יאן וברנרד קירשן היו ממארגני מצעד הסטודנטים ב-11 בנובמבר 1940, הפגנת המחאה הראשונה נגד הגרמנים בפריס.\n\nבאמצע מאי 1941 גורשו מפריס ראשוני \"היהודים הזרים\", כ- 5,000 איש, ושולחו למחנות ריכוז והשמדה. באוגוסט שולחו עוד 8,000, ובדצמבר גורשו כמאה אנשי-רוח יהודים. ב-16 ביולי 1942 נתפסו בעיר, בשיתוף פעולה בין הכובשים הגרמנים לבין הז'נדרמריה הצרפתית, 12,884 יהודים (ביניהם כ-4,000 ילדים).\n\nמצרפת כולה הובלו למחנות-ההשמדה במזרח 85,000 יהודים, יותר ממחציתם היו תושבי פריס. בליל 3 באוקטובר 1941 הותקפו שבעה בתי-כנסת בעיר בידי פאשיסטים צרפתיים בחומרי-נפץ שקיבלו ממשטרת הבטחון הגרמנית.\n\nבעת ההתקוממות בפריס באוגוסט 1944 נפלו עשרות יהודים בקרבות. רחובות רבים בעיר ובפרבריה נקראים על שמות גיבורי המחתרת, וב-1956 הוקמה בלב פריס יד-זכרון לחללי השואה, במסגרת המרכז לתיעוד יהודי זמננו.\n\n\nעל פי מפקד 1968 מנתה אוכלוסיית פריס 2,590,770; ובאותה השנה נאמד מספר תושביה היהודים ב-350,000-300,000 - כ%60 מכלל היישוב היהודי בצרפת. עלייתם הכלכלית והחברתית של בני הדור השני של המהגרים היהודים ממזרח-אירופה, נהירת יהודים מצפון- אפריקה והקמת מפעלי בינוי חדשים; כל אלה גרמו לפיזור האוכלוסייה היהודית בבירה מפרבריה המזרחיים לאזורים אחרים בעיר. המרכזים הישנים התמלאו ביהודים צפון-אפריקנים דלי-אמצעים, ובשנים 1966-1957 גדל מספר העדות היהודיות באיזור פריס מ-44 ל-148.\n\nעל חיי הדת בקהילה ממונה רשמית הקונסיסטוריה של פריס, בנשיאותו המסורתית של אחד הרוטשילדים. הקונסיסטוריה איגדה כ-20 בתי-כנסת ו\"מניינים\", אשכנזיים וספרדיים. מלבד אלה היו כ-30 בתי-כנסת של חרדים, רפורמיים וקבוצות עצמאיות, אולם רק כשליש מיהודי פריס קיימו קשר עם מוסדות הקהילה למיניהם.\n\nיותר ממאה אלף פליטים מצפון-אפריקה נעזרו בידי ארגון מיוחד הפועל בשיתוף עם גורמים ממשלתיים ומוסדות חברה וחינוך יהודיים. פעולות תרבות וחינוך פעלו להגברת התודעה היהודית בקרב הנוער הלומד; ופריס הייתה אחת הערים היחידות בעולם שקיימה בית-ספר עברי, שלו תכנית לימודים ישראלית לכל דבר.\n\nמלחמת ששת הימים הוציאה אלפי צעירים להפגנות הזדהות עם ישראל; וגם ב\"מרד הסטודנטים\" (1968) בלטו יהודים, והיו חברים יהודים בקבוצות השמאל החדש שתמכו בטרור הערבי. המתיחות הביאה לחיכוכים בין ערבים ליהודים יוצאי צפון-אפריקה והתארגנו קבוצות יהודיות להגנה עצמית.\n\nבשנת 1997 חיו בצרפת כולה כ- 600,000 יהודים; למעלה ממחציתם (כ- 350,000) ישבו בפריס רבתי. \"המועצה של יהודי צרפת\"(CRIF) שהוקמה בשנת 1944 מייצגת את הקהילות היהודיות כלפי השלטונות, והקונסיסטוריה אחראית לפעילות היהודית הדתית. כל הארגונים הציוניים פועלים בעיר וכן כעשרים בתי ספר יהודיים, עממיים ותיכונים. וכמספר הזה בתי כנסת."
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Generated by aglio on 29 Dec 2016